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Melasma

It is a facial skin condition where the skin becomes patchy brown, tan, or blue-gray discoloration. The common facial patterns in melasma are centrofacial (center of the face), malar (cheekbones), and mandibular (jawbone).
Discoloration or hyperpigmentation primarily on the face are characteristics of Melasma.

Prevalence of Melasma

Melasma is seen in women between 20 to 50 years of age. It is uncommon in men. Melasma is seen on upper lip, forehead, upper cheeks and chin.

Causes of Melasma
  • Primarily related to external sun exposure.
  • External hormones (Postmenopausal women, etc.) and internal hormonal changes (Pregnancy).
  • Exposure to heat.
  • Genetic: Higher incidences of melasma are seen in women of Latin and Asian descents and People with olive or darker skin like Asian, Hispanic, and Middle Eastern individuals.
    Family history also is a cause.
  • Certain medicines.
  • Products or treatments that irritate the skin may cause an increase in melanin production by the skin, leading to Melasma. 
Prevention of Melasma

Facial sun protection and avoiding harsh sun is a primary thing to be practiced for preventing Melasma.

Treatment of Melasma
  • Application of sunscreen on a regular basis.
  • Fading creams having medications like 4% hydroquinone, etc. are effective.
  • 4% hydroquinone is also found in certain sunscreens.

Discoloration with melasma might disappear in conditions like the period following pregnancy or when hormone therapy is discontinued.

Your doctor will prescribe you the right therapy. Some of the most popular topical applications are the specially formulated creams with hydroquinone, azelaic acid, retinoic acid, phenolic hypopigmenting agent, kojic acid and nonphenolic bleaching agents.
Chemical peels are also available, suiting different skin types.

Microdermabrasion: An abrasive material like fine diamond chips or aluminum oxide crystals is used in combination with a vacuum to stimulate the top layers of the skin to exfoliate. These sessions are done over a few minutes to an hour.

 Lasers: They may produce results but only temporarily. This therapy is not the primary choice to treat melasma.

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